You've already come accross dots placed after notes, but some notes have dots written above or below them. These ask you to play the notes staccato, meaning that you should only sound the beginnings of the notes. This doesn't change the underlying rhythm. How short should a staccato note be? It's a matter of personal taste and style.
You have also seen a curved line before. When it connects two notes of the same pitch, it is a tie. When it brackets two or more different notes, it is called a slur and it asks you to connect the notes smoothly.
Exactly how you do this varies from instrument to instrument. However, if the slur connects two notes, it usually imples that the second note should be less stressed than the first (perhaps less stressed than usual) and without a fresh attack. Think 'ti-ra' rather than 'tin-tin'. If the slur brackets a number of notes, keep the sound flowing from note to note in a singing style.
Hoboeckentanz is a renaissance dance tune. It should be quite brisk, and works well over a drone. It features changes of dynamics from f to p and both of the new articulation marks.