Music is an international language, but note names vary from country to country. English names - semibreve, minim, crotchet, quaver, semi-quaver and so on - derive from a notation system that predates even Standard Notation and it has to be said that they're really just names. They don't tell us anything useful.
America, however, adapted a German system in which note-names usefully state their relative values. In this system, a whole-note is twice as long as a half-note (well, duh?) and four times as long as a quarter-note. Once you've grasped this logic, eighth-notes, sixteenth-notes & thirty-second-notes are self-explanatory.
In the diagram below, each line takes up the same amount of time.